Sometimes in the severely collapsed patient intravenous access is not possible, but medications and fluids are still vitally needed. In these cases you should consider placing an intraosseous catheter. The tibiotarsus and the ulnar are the only bones that should be used in the avian patient, due to others communicating with the air sac system. In this video a post mortem specimen is being used (with permission from the owner). In the live patient they would be anaesthetised, and the area aseptically prepared. Any medications that can be given intravenously, can be given intraosseously.